[Sensor_Name: Short_Name='NISKIN BOTTLES']
WISSARD Hot Water Drill System design and overall descriptionEntry ID: Hot_Water_Drill_Systems_NSF_PLR_1146554_1.0
Abstract: A new, clean, hot-water drill system (HWDS) was developed by the ANDRILL Science Management Office, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, for use in the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project to gain access to Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) in January 2013 beneath ~800 m of ice in West Antarctica (84.240 S, 153.694 W), as well as at the grounding zone (GZ) of the Ross ... Ice Shelf beneath ~730 meters of ice in January 2014 at a location about 60 miles north of the SLW site. Testing of the WISSARD hot water drill system was performed on the McMurdo Ice Shelf near McMurdo Station in December 2012 at a location named WIZ-SPOT (77.890278 S, 167.008333E)
One primary borehole was drilled into the basal ice environment of SLW during the initial field season in 2012/13. A series of three related papers published in the Annals of Glaciology, v. 55 (68), describe the process of designing, fabricating, assembling, shipping, testing, commissioning and traversing the WISSARD HWDS, as well as providing details about the snow melting system that supplied seed water for the drill and the design of the control and monitoring system.
The first scientific use of the WISSARD hot water drill system provided clean access through ~800 meters of ice into Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) in late January 2013. This is described in a paper by Tulaczyk and other (2014) published in the Annals of Glaciology v. 55(65), which includes the deployment of an array of scientific tools through the SLW borehole: a downhole camera, a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) probe, a Niskin water sampler, an in situ filtration unit, three different sediment corers, a geothermal probe and a geophysical sensor string. Observations confirm the existence of a subglacial water reservoir whose presence was previously inferred from satellite altimetry and surface geophysics. Subglacial water is about two orders of magnitude less saline than sea water (0.37-0.41 psu vs 35 psu) and two orders of magnitude more saline than pure drill meltwater (<0.002 psu). It reaches a minimum temperature of -0.558C, consistent with depression of the freezing point by 7.019MPa of water pressure. Subglacial water was turbid and remained turbid following filtration through 0.45 mm filters. The recovered sediment cores, which sampled down to 0.8 m below the lake bottom, contained a macroscopically structureless diamicton with shear strength between 2 and 6kPa.
Purpose: The primary goal of this project was to describe the overall design of the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling) Project?s hot water drill system (HWDS). The UNL design of WISSARD HWDS is comprised of the following primary modules and containers: (1) a Melt Tank (MT), (2) a 3700 gallon capacity Water Supply Tank (WST), (3) a Water Filtration and decontamination Unit ... (WFU), (4) two Heater-Pump Units (HPU-1, HPU-2), (5) a Hose Reel Unit (HRU), and (6) a Command and Control Module (C&C). There are also several auxiliary modules transferred from the IceCube Project?s Enhanced Hot Water Drill (EHWD) that are integrated into the final WISSARD system, such as: (1) two containerized 225 kV generators (GEN #1, GEN #2), (2) a Power Distribution Module (PDM), and (3) a Day Fuel Tank (DFT). Additional modules include: (1) a Storage Traverse Unit (STU), (2) a modular expandable configuration container (known as a MECC), which was used as the drill system workshop, and (3) a germicidal ultraviolet decontamination collar, which was used to decontaminate hoses and cables entering the subglacial environment through the borehole.
Operational data was written down in a driller's logbook and this information has been transferred to an Excel spreadsheet for each site location. Drilling parameter data was collected by the Command and Control network. Selected drilling parameter data has been archived in Excel spreadsheets. These data include (1) drill nozzle water flow rate (gpm), (2) borehole pressure head (m), and (3) drill water pressure (psi) for 1 minute intervals throughout the drilling operations at SLW from January 27-30, 2013.
The development of the WISSARD HWDS enabled transformational science to be performed by providing clean access for the first time into Subglacial Lake Whillans, located 630 miles south of McMurdo Station under ~800 meters of ice in West Antarctica in 2012-2013, and access through ~730 meters of ice into the grounding zone of the Whillans Ice Stream/Ross Ice Shelf in 2014-2015. Initial commissioning of the WISSARD hot water drill system was conducted on the McMurdo Ice Shelf through ~50 meters of ice in December 2012.
The ability to cleanly access subglacial environments, such as subglacial lakes under the Antarctic Ice Sheet and below ice shelves surrounding Antarctica, opens up a wide range of possibilities for research into other disciplines of science and engineering, ranging from glaciology to geology, geophysics, geochemistry, genomics, oceanography, ecosystem studies, and many others.
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-PLR-ANT-1146554.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Frank R Rack
Dataset Title: WISSARD hot water drill system (HWDS)
Dataset Series Name: WISSARD HWDS: Basic drill system components and design
Dataset Release Place: Lincoln, NE
Dataset Publisher: ANDRILL Science Management Office
Issue Identification: 55(68):285-297
Data Presentation Form: text and figures
Other Citation Details: For further information, contact Dr. Frank R. Rack (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Dataset DOI: doi: 10.3189/2014AoG68A031
Start Date: 2013-01-23Stop Date: 2013-01-31
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > FIRN
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER THICKNESS/ICE SHEET THICKNESS
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIERS
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > ICE SHEETS
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS
BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS > LAKE/POND
CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > SEA LEVEL RISE
CLIMATE INDICATORS > CRYOSPHERIC INDICATORS > FIRN LIMIT
CLIMATE INDICATORS > CRYOSPHERIC INDICATORS > GLACIAL MEASUREMENTS
CLIMATE INDICATORS > CRYOSPHERIC INDICATORS > GLACIAL MEASUREMENTS > GLACIER MOTION/ICE SHEET MOTION
CLIMATE INDICATORS > CRYOSPHERIC INDICATORS > GLACIAL MEASUREMENTS > GLACIER/ICE SHEET THICKNESS
CLIMATE INDICATORS > CRYOSPHERIC INDICATORS > ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS
CLIMATE INDICATORS > CRYOSPHERIC INDICATORS > SALINITY
CLIMATE INDICATORS > PALEOCLIMATE INDICATORS
CLIMATE INDICATORS > PALEOCLIMATE INDICATORS > BIOLOGICAL RECORDS
CLIMATE INDICATORS > PALEOCLIMATE INDICATORS > BIOLOGICAL RECORDS > MICROFOSSILS
CLIMATE INDICATORS > PALEOCLIMATE INDICATORS > ICE CORE RECORDS
CLIMATE INDICATORS > PALEOCLIMATE INDICATORS > OCEAN/LAKE RECORDS > BOREHOLES
CLIMATE INDICATORS > PALEOCLIMATE INDICATORS > OCEAN/LAKE RECORDS > SEDIMENTS
SOLID EARTH > GEOCHEMISTRY > MARINE GEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES
SOLID EARTH > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > GLACIAL PROCESSES
SOLID EARTH > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > GLACIAL PROCESSES > FREEZE/THAW > BASAL ICE FREEZING
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > FIRN
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER MOTION/ICE SHEET MOTION
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER THICKNESS/ICE SHEET THICKNESS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIERS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > ICE SHEETS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > WATER CHARACTERISTICS > CONDUCTIVITY
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > NUTRIENTS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > CONTAMINANTS > ORGANIC MATTER
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > GASES > DISSOLVED OXYGEN
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > WATER CHARACTERISTICS > pH
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > WATER CHARACTERISTICS > WATER TEMPERATURE
Quality This is raw data concerning the drill system parameters used during the drilling at each site where the WISSARD hot water drill was used to provide an access hole through the ice. The available data include: (1) date and time stamped entries in the drillers logbook, with relevant comments, which can be combined with date and time-stamped data collected from select drill system sensors; the sensor data record: (2) the drill output water flow rate (in units of gallons per minute, gpm), (3) the drill output water pressure (in units of pounds per square inch, psi), and (4) the head measured in the borehole by a pressure sensor located at the borehole submersible pump (in units of meters).
Access Constraints These data are available upon request from Dr. Frank R. Rack, ANDRILL Science Management Office, 126 Bessey Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 68588-0341.
Use Constraints These data may be used under Creative Commons by Attribution International License (CCBY).
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: electronic
Distribution Size: 20.0 MB
Distribution Format: .XLSX files
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: METADATA AUTHOR
Phone: (402) 472-4785
Email: frack2 at unl.edu
ANDRILL Science Management Office, 126 Bessey Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Province or State: NE
Postal Code: 68588-0341
Extended Metadata Properties
(Click to view more)
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2015-04-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2018-11-01