Surface Air Temperature Analyses (GISTEMP) DataEntry ID: GISS_GISTEMP
Abstract: The NASA GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature with monthly resolution for the period since 1880, when a reasonably global distribution of meteorological stations was established. Input data for the analysis, collected by many national meteorological services around the world, is the unadjusted data of the Global Historical ... Climatology Network (Peterson and Vose, 1997) except that the USHCN station records included were replaced by a later corrected version. These data were augmented by SCAR data from Antarctic stations. Documentation of the analysis is provided by Hansen et al. (1999), with several modifications described by Hansen et al. (2001). The GISS analysis is updated monthly.
The GHCN/USHCN/SCAR data was modified in two stages to get to the station data on which all the tables, graphs, and maps are based: in stage 1 at each location the time records of the various sources are combined; in stage 2 the non-rural stations are adjusted in such a way that their long term trend of annual means is as close as possible to that of the mean of the neighboring rural stations. Non-rural stations that cannot be adjusted are dropped.
The analysis includes results for a global temperature index as described by Hansen et al. (1996). The temperature index is formed by combining the meteorological station measurements over land with sea surface temperatures obtained primarily from satellite measurements (Reynolds and Smith, 1994; Smith et al. 1996). Any uses of the temperature index data, i.e., the results including sea surface emperatures, should credit Reynolds and Smith (1994) and Smith et al. (1996). (See references.)
We limit the analysis to the period since 1880 because of the poor spatial coverage of stations prior to that time and the reduced possibility of checking records against those of nearby neighbors. Meteorological station data provide a useful indication of temperature change in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics for a few decades prior to 1880, and there are a small number of station records that extend back to previous centuries. However, it is believed that analyses for these earlier years need to be carried out on a station by station basis with an attempt to discern the method and reliability of measurements at each station, a task beyond the scope of the current analysis. Global studies of still earlier times depend upon incorporation of proxy measures of temperature change. References to such studies are provided in Hansen et al. (1999).
The temperatures are anomalies in degrees Celsius from the 1951-1980 mean. A good approximation to the actual annual mean global-mean temperature is obtained by adding 14C to the anomalies.
[Summary adapted from the GISS Home Page]
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: J. Hansen, R. Ruedy, M. Sato
Dataset Title: GISS Surface Air Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP)
Dataset Release Place: New York City, NY, USA
Dataset Publisher: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
Version: GISTEMP 2016Online Resource: http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/
Start Date: 1880-01-01
Temporal Resolution: monthly
Temporal Resolution Range: Monthly - < Annual
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: online
Distribution Format: ascii
Email: James.E.Hansen at nasa.gov
NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies 2880 Broadway
City: New York
Province or State: NY
Postal Code: 10025
All GISS Publications: http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/
Hansen, J., and S. Lebedeff 1987. Global trends of measured surface air
temperature. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13,345-13,372.
Hansen, J., and S. Lebedeff 1988. Global surface air temperatures: Update
through 1987. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 323-326.
Hansen, ... J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and R. Reynolds 1996. Global surface air
temperature in 1995: Return to pre-Pinatubo level. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23,
Hansen, J., and H. Wilson 1993. Commentary on the significance
of global temperature records. Climatic Change 25, 185-191.
Hansen, J., H. Wilson, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Shah, and E. Hansen 1995.
Satellite and surface temperature data at odds? Climatic Change 30, 103-117.
Hansen, J., M. Sato, J. Glascoe and R. Ruedy 1998. A common-sense climate
index: Is climate changing noticeably? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95, 4113-4120.
Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, J. Glascoe, and M. Sato 1999. GISS analysis of surface
temperature change. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30997-31022.
Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, M. Imhoff, W. Lawrence, D. Easterling, T.
Peterson, and T. Karl 2001. A closer look at United States and global surface
temperature change. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23947-23963
National Research Council 2000. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature
Change. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 85 pp
Peterson, T.C., and R.S. Vose 1997. An overview of the Global Historical
Climatology Network temperature database. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 78,
Rayner, N. 2000. HadISST1 Seaice and sea surface temperature files. Hadley
Center, Bracknell, U.K
Reynolds, R.W., and T.M. Smith 1994. Improved global sea surface temperature
analyses using optimal interpolation. J. Climate 7, 929-948.
Reynolds, R.W., N.A. Rayner, T.M. Smith, D.C. Stokes, and W. Wang 2002. An
improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate 15,
Smith, T.M., R.W. Reynolds, R.E. Livezey, and D.C. Stokes
1996. Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperature using
empirical orthogonal functions. J. Climate 9, 1403-1420.
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Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2017-08-24