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Distribution of Dissolved Pesticides and Other Water Quality Constituents in Small Streams, and their Relation to Land Use, Willamette River Basin, Oregon
Entry ID: WRIR_97_4268


Summary
Abstract: Water quality samples were collected at sites in 16 randomly selected agricultural and 4 urban subbasins as part of Phase III of the Willamette River Basin Water Quality Study in Oregon during 1996. Ninety-five samples were collected and analyzed for suspended sediment, conventional constituents (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, and bacteria) and a suite of 86 dissolved pesticides. The data were collected to characterize the distribution of dissolved pesticide concentrations in small streams (drainage areas 2.6? 13 square miles) throughout the basin, to document exceedances of water quality standards and guidelines, and to identify the relative importance of several upstream land use categories (urban, agricultural, percent agricultural land, percent of land in grass seed crops, crop diversity) and seasonality in affecting these distributions. A total of 36 pesticides (29 herbicides and 7 insecticides) were detected basinwide. The five most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides atrazine (99% of samples), desethylatrazine (93%), simazine (85%), metolachlor (85%), and diuron (73%). Fifteen compounds were detected in 12?35% of samples, and 16 compounds were detected in 1?9% of samples. Water quality standards or criteria were exceeded more frequently for conventional constituents than for pesticides. State of Oregon water quality standards were exceeded at all but one site for the indicator bacteria E. coli, 3 sites for nitrate, 10 sites for water temperature, 4 sites for dissolved oxygen, and 1 site for pH. Pesticide concentrations, which were usually less than 1 part per billion, exceeded State of Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life toxicity criteria only for chlorpyrifos, in three samples from one site; such criteria have been established for only two other detected pesticides. However, a large number of unusually high concentrations (1?90 parts per billion) were detected, indicating that pesticides in the runoff sampled in these small streams were more highly concentrated than in the larger streams sampled in previous studies. These pulses could have had short term toxicological implications for the affected streams; however, additional toxicological assessment of the detected pesticides was limited because of a lack of available information on the response of aquatic life to the observed pesticide concentrations. Six pesticides, including atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor, had significantly higher (p<0.08 for metolachlor, p<0.05 for the other five) median concentrations at agricultural sites than at urban sites. Five other compounds ?carbaryl, diazinon, dichlobenil, prometon, and tebuthiuron?had significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations at the urban sites than at the agricultural sites. Atrazine, metolachlor, and diuron also had significantly higher median concentrations at southern agricultural sites (dominated by grass seed crops) than northern agricultural sites. Other compounds that had higher median concentrations in the south included 2,4-D and metribuzin, which are both used on grass seed crops, and triclopyr, bromacil, and pronamide. A cluster analysis of the data grouped sites according to their pesticide detections in a manner that was almost identical to a grouping made solely on the basis of their upstream land use patterns (urban, agricultural, crop diversity, percentage of basin in agricultural production). In this way inferences about pesticide associations with different land uses could be drawn, illustrating the strength of these broad land use categories in determining the types of pesticides that can be expected to occur. Among the associations observed were pesticides that occurred at a group of agricultural sites, but which have primarily noncropland uses such as vegetation control along rights-of-way. Also, the amount of forested land in a basin was negatively associated with pesticide occurrence
Geographic Coverage
 N: 46.0 S: 43.5  E: -121.5  W: -124.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Creator: Chauncey W. Anderson, Tamara M. Wood and Jennifer L. Morace
Dataset Title: Distribution of Dissolved Pesticides and Other Water Quality Constituents in Small Streams, and their Relation to Land Use, In the Willamette River Basin,Oregon
Dataset Release Date: 1997
Dataset Release Place: Portland, Oregon
Dataset Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Data Presentation Form: database


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1996-03-01
Stop Date: 1996-11-30


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OREGON


Science Keywords
AGRICULTURE >AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS >PESTICIDES    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS >NUTRIENT CYCLING    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >NITROGEN    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >NUTRIENTS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >PHOSPHORUS    [Definition]
HUMAN DIMENSIONS >ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS >CONTAMINANT LEVELS/SPILLS >PESTICIDES    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >SURFACE WATER >SURFACE WATER PROCESSES/MEASUREMENTS >RUNOFF >TOTAL RUNOFF    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY >CONTAMINANTS >PESTICIDES    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY >DISSOLVED GASES >DISSOLVED OXYGEN    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY >NITROGEN COMPOUNDS    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY >NUTRIENTS    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY >PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUNDS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOSYSTEMS >FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS >RIVERS/STREAM    [Definition]


Quality
In order to estimate variability in sampling and laboratory techniques,
quality control (QC) samples were submitted to the NWQL for pesticides, and to
the ODEQ and ACWA laboratories for the conventional constituents. Most QC
samples were used to evaluate the potential for problems form the combination
of field and laboratory procedures. QC samples for both pesticides and
conventional constituents included (1) field and equipment blanks to test for
contamination, (2) replicate native-water grab samples to test for precision,
(3) depth and width integrated samples collected as replicates to compare with
grab samples, and (4) distinct compounds, representing relevant pesticide
families (surrogates), added in known amounds to each pesticide sample to
monitor the analytical method's ability to quantify those sample types.
Additional QC samples for pesticides included (5) native-water samples spiked
with pesticide mixtures to test for accuracy, done at a range of concentrations
(low, medium, and high)), and (6) replicate spike samples to test for accuracy
and precision. Water for blank samples was carefully selected to be free fo
the constituents of concern: organic-free water was used for pesticide,
immunoassay, and BOD5 samples; inorganic-free water was used for nutrient
samples; a peptone buffer solution was used for fecal coliform bacteria, and a
sterile saline solution was used for E. Coli bacteria blanks. QC data for this
study are presented in Appendix 1 of Anderson and others, 1997.

The study design called for sample collection from 16 randomly selected
subbasins that each had predominantly agricultural land uses upstream of the
sampling site, and 4 subbasins having predominantly urban land use. In order
to minimize inputs of water from undefined or highly varied sources, small
drainage basins ranging from approximately 3 to 15 square miles were selected.
The four urban sites were selected from a set of urban subbasins drawn on
topographic maps, and the final choice was based primarily on the desire to
sample urban drainages that had not been extensively sampled previously, the
desire to sample sites in urban areas in the northern, central and southern
Willamette Basin, and the suitability of a site for sampling. Land use
information for the urban sites was derived fromthe GIS, with coverages for
urban lands most recently updated on the basis of the 1990 census (Hitt, 1994).
Due to rapid growth in many of western Oregon's cities during the 1990's data
for urban land use taken from the GIS is expected to somewhat underestimate the
proportion of urban lands and over estimate the proportion of agricultural or
forested lands in the Phase III urban subbasins. However these data were
considered adequate for the purposes of the study and the report.


Access Constraints
None


Use Constraints
None


Keywords
water quality
suspended sediment
conventional constituents
temperature
dissolved oxygen
pH
specific conductance
nutrients
biochemical oxygen demand
bacteria
Willamette River Basin
Oregon
Biological Data Profile
BDP


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Data Center
Water Resource Division, Oregon, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://oregon.usgs.gov

Data Center Personnel
Name: DENNIS D. LYNCH
Phone: (503) 251-3200
Fax: (503) 251-3470
Email: ddlynch at usgs.gov
Contact Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
10615 S.E. Cherry Blossom Drive
City: Portland
Province or State: Oregon
Postal Code: 97216-3159
Country: USA


Personnel
CHAUNCEY W. ANDERSON
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: (503) 251-3206
Fax: (503) 251-3470
Email: chauncey at usgs.gov
Contact Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
10615 SE Cherry Blossom Dr.
City: Portland
Province or State: Oregon
Postal Code: 97216
Country: USA


Publications/References
Anderson, C. W., Wood, T.M., and Morace, J.M., 1997, Distribution of Dissolved
Pesticides and Other Water Quality Constituents in Small Streams, and their
Relation to Land Use, in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, 1996. U.S.
Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4268, Portland,
Oregon. U.S. Geological Survey http://oregon.usgs.gov/pubs_dir/Pdf/97-4268.pdf
Extended Metadata Properties
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2001-06-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2017-08-23
Future DIF Review Date: 2002-06-27



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