NASA GISS Atmosphere-Ocean Model
A coupled atmosphere-ocean model has been developed for climate predictions at decade to century time scales. Atmospheric source terms are similar to those of Hansen et al. . Atmospheric dynamic equations for mass and momentum are solved using Arakawa and Lamb's  C grid scheme. Advection of potential enthalpy and water vapor uses the linear upstream scheme [Russell and Lerner, 1981]. The new global ocean model conserves mass as opposed to volume and allows for divergent flow and a free surface. Ocean mass and momentum equations are solved using a new C grid scheme. The linear upstream scheme is used for advection of potential enthalpy and salt. A version of the k-profile parameterization (KPP) mixing scheme [Large et al., 1994] is used for ocean vertical mixing. The atmosphere-ocean model uses realistic land distribution and realistic solid ground topography. Insolation has proper seasonal and diurnal cycles. Atmospheric and ocean surface fluxes are of opposite sign and are applied synchronously. Flux corrections are not used. Except for partial strength alternating binomial filters which are applied to the momentum components in the atmosphere and oceans, there is no explicit horizontal diffusion. Climate simulations of the coupled model at 4 degree x 5 degree horizontal resolution with 9 vertical layers for the atmosphere and 13 layers for the ocean is discussed by Russell et al. .
Atmosphere-Ocean Model homepage with access to pdf formats and Fortran source code.
Dr. James R. Miller, Dr. David H. Rind, Dr. Reto A. Ruedy, Dr. Gary L. Russell, Dr. Gavin A. Schmidt
Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Past Climate Change and Future Climate Predictions
Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Earth Sciences Division
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Please cite the model creators if you use this model.
gary.l.russell at nasa.gov
NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies
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Scott.A.Ritz at nasa.gov
5700 Rivertech Court
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