Parts of the McMurdo Ice Shelf area is covered by freshwater ponds, many of which contain abundant growths of algae and cyanobacteria and few invertebrate species. The habitat is very variable in temperature, salinity and its freeze-thaw cycle. A number of experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of adverse environmental conditions on the feeding rates and rates of respiration of the common rotifer Philodina gregaria.
Hawes, I. Smith, R. Howard-Williams, C. Schwarz, A.-M. Environmental conditions during freezing, and response of microbial mats in ponds of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Antarctic science 11(2): 198-208, 1999.