Abstract: This data set is generated from brightness temperature data derived from the following sensors: SMMR, DMSP -F8, -F11 and -F13, SSM/Is, and SSMIS. The data are provided in the polar stereographic projection at a grid cell size of 25 x 25 km. This product is designed to provide a consistent time series of sea ice concentrations, the fraction or percentage of ocean area covered by sea ice, spanning the coverage of several passive microwave instruments.
NSIDC observed and manually inspected selected files in this data set, and performed spot checks against the original hand-drawn NOAA/NESDIS snow charts and the original sea ice data. Please see the Quality Control Summary for more information about quality control procedures at NSIDC.
Brodzik, M. J., B. Billingsley, T. Haran, B. Raup, M. H. Savoie. 2012. EASE-Grid 2.0: Incremental but Significant Improvements for Earthâ€“Gridded Data Sets. ISPRS International Journal of Geo–Information 1(1):32-45. doi:10.3390/ijgi1010032. Brodzik, M. J. 2012. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land Cover Data Resampled from Boston University Version of Global 1 km Land Cover from MODIS 2001, Version 4. Boulder, ... Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Brodzik, M. J. 1997. EASE-Grid: A Versatile Set of Equal-Area Projections and Grids. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Brown R. D., and D. A. Robinson. 2011. Northern Hemisphere Spring Snow Cover Variability and Change over 1992–2010 Including an Assessment of Uncertainty. The Cryosphere 5:219–229, www.the-cryosphere.net/5/219/2011/doi:10.5194/tc-5-219-2011. Cavalieri, D. J., J. Crawford, M. Drinkwater, W. J. Emery, D. T. Eppler, L. D. Farmer, M. Goodberlet, R. Jentz, A. Milman, C. Morris, R. Onstott, A. Schweiger, R. Shuchman, K. Steffen, C. T. Swift, C. Wackerman, and R. L. Weaver. 1992. NASA Sea Ice Validation Program for the DMSP SSM/I: Final Report. NASA Technical Memorandum 104559. 126 pp. Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1984. Determination of Sea Ice Parameters with the NIMBUS–7 SMMR. Journal of Geophysical Research 89(D4):5355-5369. Dewey, K. F. and R. Heim, Jr. 1981. Satellite Observations of Variations in Northern Hemisphere Seasonal Snow Cover. NOAA Technical Report NESS 87. 83 pp. Dewey, K. F. and R. Heim Jr. 1982. New Data Base: A Digital Archive of Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover. Presented at Western Snow Conference, April 19–23. Reno, NV, 9 pp. Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1992. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978 - 1987: Satellite Passive Microwave Observations and Analysis. NASA SP–511. Helfrich, S. R., D. McNamara, B. H. Ramsay, T. Baldwin, and T. Kasheta. 2007. Enhancements to, and Forthcoming Developments in the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Hydrological Processes 21(12): 1576–1586. doi:10.1002/hyp.6720. Johannessen, O. M., M. W. Miles, E. Bjørgo. 1996. Global Sea Ice Monitoring from Microwave Satellites. In IGARSS '96. 1996 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Remote Sensing for a Sustainable Future, ed. T. I. Stein, Vol. II: 932–934. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Knowles, K. 2004. EASE–Grid Land Cover Data Resampled from Boston University Version of Global 1 km Land Cover from MODIS 2001, Version 4. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Knowles, K. 1993. Points, Pixels, Grids, and Cells: A Mapping and Gridding Primer. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. NOAA/NESDIS/OSDPD/SSD. 2004. IMS Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Analysis at 4 km and 24 km Resolution. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Ramsay, B. H. 1998. The Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System. Hydrological Processes 12:1537-1546. Robinson, D. et al. 2012. NOAA/NCDC Climate Data Record (CDR) of Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE). New Jersey, USA: Rutgers University Global Snow Lab. Robinson, D. A., A. Bamzai, and B. Ramsay. 2001. Evaluating Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover During the Satellite Era: Variations in Extent and Associations with Temperature. Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Global Change and Climate Variations. Albuquerque, New Mexico USA, American Meteorological Society, 36–39. Robinson, D. A. 2000. Weekly Northern Hemisphere Snow Maps: 1966–1999. 12th Conference on Applied Climatology, Asheville, NC, American Meteorological Society, 12–15. Robinson, D. A. and A. Frei. 2000. Seasonal Variability of Northern Hemisphere Snow Extent Using Visible Satellite Data. Professional Geographer 51: 307–314. Robinson, D. A., J. D. Tarpley and B. Ramsay. 1999. Transition from NOAA Weekly to Daily Hemispheric Snow Charts. Proceedings of the 10th Symposium on Global Change, Dallas, TX, American Meteorological Society, 487–490. Robinson, D. A., K. F. Dewey, and R. R. Heim, Jr. 1993. Global Snow Cover Monitoring: an Update. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74:1689–1696. Swift, C. T. and D. J. Cavalieri. 1985. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Sea Ice Research. EOS 66(49):1210–1212.
Extended Metadata Properties
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Temporal coverage was extended to 29 June 2014.
The projection changed to EASE-Grid 2.0, 720 x 720, at 25.000000 km
Sensor change over dates:
SMMR to SSM/I: 1987-07-03
SSM/I F08 to F11: 1991-12-09
SSM/I F11 to F13: 1995-05-08
SSM/I F13 to SSMIS F17: 2008-01-01
EASE-Grid Land Mask Source: Same as Version 3.1, regridded to EASE-Grid 2.0 (Brodzik et al. 2012).
Last_Name: USER SERVICES
Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
Address: University of Colorado