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51. Observation of a skua club at Cape Bird to determine why they exist [K014_1970_1971_NZ_2]
Not far from breeding skuas in a colony there is often a flock of essentially non-breeding birds which is commonly known as the club. The purpose of the club was determined by constant observation ...


52. Observations of intraspecific aggressive behaviour in the adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) [K017_1967_1971_NZ_1]
The cause, function, effect and patterns of behaviour in penguin fighting on the colony was determined from long periods of direct observations of banded penguins and on set-period recordings of all ...


53. Observations of the circulation of winds in the Wright Valley using an acoustic sounder, pilot balloons and airsondes [K172_1988_1989_NZ_1]
Previous meteorological measurements in the Dry Valley region of South Victoria Land have shown that during summer, there is a well developed diurnal local circulation driven by solar heating/convective ...


54. Oceanographic and sea ice measurements to determine the influence of platelet ice on the freezing of land fast sea ice [K131_2003_2004_NZ_1]
An understanding of the formation of platelet ice in McMurdo Sound and consequently its influence on the formation of land fast sea ice was investigated over a winter season when ice formation begins ...


55. Palaeomagnetic measurements on rocks from Mt Crean to determine the continental drift of gondwanaland [K045_1994_1995_NZ_1]
The Beacon sediments of East Antarctica were deposited over the Devonian to Triassic geological periods, from 400 to 200 million years ago. Palaeomagnetic measurements on these rocks provide information ...


56. Pelagic ecosystem investigations of McMurdo Sound: plankton species composition and density, ocean environmental factors, levels of seston, bacteria analysis and ice algae composition [K014_1979_1980_NZ_1]
Comparisons of water column productivity and processes was completed by comparing 4 sites including on the edge of the McMurdo Ice Shelf some 12km west of Cape Armitage, off Scott Base on the east ...


57. Petrological evolution of basement granitoids Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica [K061_1986_1987_NZ_1]
Several workers have studied the basement and other granitoids in the Dry Valleys, without a detailed petrographical and chemical study of these rocks. This study was aimed at elucidating the evolution ...


58. Petrology of Koettlitz Group meto-sediments and gneisses from the mid Taylor Valley and mid Ferrar Glacier areas [K061_1986_1987_NZ_3]
Highly deformed Koettlitz Group rocks from the mid Taylor Valley, Dun Glacier and Catherdral Rocks areas contain migmatitic and non-migmatitic gneisses of unknown parentage. Detailed mapping and examination ...


59. RICE: Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project - Automatic Weather Station Data [K049_2010_2012_NZ_2]   PARENT DIF
RICE is an international collaboration between New Zealand, USA, Denmark, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, Italy and China. The aim of the project is to recover a 750 m deep ice core from Roosevelt ...


60. RICE: Shallow - Firn - Ice core, Roosevelt Island, Antarctica [K049_2010_2012_NZ_4]   PARENT DIF
RICE is an international collaboration between New Zealand, USA, Denmark, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, Italy and China. The aim of the project is to recover a 750 m deep ice core from Roosevelt ...


61. RICE: Snow Samples, Roosevelt Island, Antarctica [K049_2010_2012_NZ_3]   PARENT DIF
RICE is an international collaboration between New Zealand, USA, Denmark, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, Italy and China. The aim of the project is to recover a 750 m deep ice core from Roosevelt ...


62. Reconnaissance of the Balleny Islands [K017_1963_1964_NZ_1]
A reconnaissance expedition took place around the Balleny Islands in the 1963-1964 field season with the objective to examine the four beaches where landings had previously been made and to search ...


63. Recording and modified playbacks of Adelie penguin parental calls to chicks in the creche stage to investigate parental chick communication [K014_1978_1979_NZ_1]
The vocal communication of Adelie penguins at Cape Bird was investigated. A single colony was selected from the Northern colony for study and all birds (established breeders and most of the non breeders) ...


64. Regional stratigraphy, sedimentology structure, metamorphic and tectonic history of the lower grade Skelton Group meta-sediments between the Skelton and Koettlitz Glaciers [K002_1975_1976_NZ_1]
A study of the low grade meta-sedimentary rocks of the Skelton and Koettlitz Glacier areas including the unmapped Mt Cocks Range at the head of the Koettlitz Glacier was investigated to add to the ...


65. Reproductive biology of notothenioid fish - Analysis of gonadal development from a number of species [K058_2005_2008_NZ_3]
Fish species of the suborder Notothenioidei were captured in the McMurdo Sound or Terra Nova Bay region and basic biological measurements were taken for all fish (length, weight, gonadosomatic indices, ...


66. Richter footslope development in the Olympus Range [K009_1973_1974_NZ_2]   PARENT DIF
In the 1973-74 season, two detailed traverses were made on Mt Circe and Mt Boreas in the Olympus Range. Bedrock slopes are easily accesible in this region and it is one of the few areas where the ...


67. Salt, nutrient and other contaminant analysis of soil samples taken near the old Vanda Station [K105_1993_1994_NZ_2]
Water and soil samples from Vanda Station were found to have contamination by apparently anthropogenically derived components (such as heavy metals) and these contaminants are moving in the soils ...


68. Sampling petroleum contaminated soils for microbes at the historic huts [K021_1998_2008_NZ_8]
Soil samples were taken at Cape Evans where the remains of 2 petroleum depots are located near the hut (1999-2000 season) to ascertain if hydrocarbons were present. Additional sampling was carried ...


69. Sea ice cracks, sea ice movement and tide movements of Granite Harbour [K042_1982_1983_NZ_4]
Active spreading sea ice cracks were found in the sea ice of Granite Harbour over several seasons. The cracks would prove difficult for heavy surface transport required for a drill rig site establishment. ...


70. Seafloor sampling (macrofauna, epifauna, macroalgae, sediments, video footage and still photographs) of the north western Ross Sea area including Cape Hallett, Cape Adare, Coulman Island and Cape Russell [K082_2003_2004_NZ_1]
As part of the Italian led Victoria Land Transect (VLT) project voyage on board the RV Italica, diver based surveys of the structural and functional diversity of the shallow water benthic communities ...


71. Sediment transport load in the Onyx River, Wright Valley [K164_1984_1985_NZ_1]
The sediment transport load in the Onyx River was investigated. The bedload transport rates were used in association with the 15 year flow record, to estimate sandur sedimentation rates. 38 cross ...


72. Sedimentological and palaentological examination of the Devonian Horlick formation in the Ohio Range of the Horlick Mountains [K026_1979_1980_NZ_1]
15 sections of the Horlick formation were measured in detail along the Ohio escarpment from Discovery Ridge to Lackey Ridge. The Ohio Range contains the only well exposed record of unequivocally marine ...


73. Seismic profile survey of McMurdo Sound and Terra Nova Bay [K042_1974_1975_NZ_2]
As part of the Dry Valleys Drilling Project, the area of the McMurdo Sound drill hole was surveyed with a seismic survey profile and extended to cover the whole of the McMurdo Sound region to determine ...


74. Seismic reflection data from a 50km line southeast of the summit of Mt Erebus to assess the amplitude and wavelength of crustal flexure associated with the load of the Ross Archipelago [K101_1988_1989_NZ_1]
A joint project between the New Zealand Geophysic Division (now IGNS), Stanford University and the University of Nebraska was conducted to carry out a seismic reflection line of approximate 50 km ...


75. Seismic reflection survey across Hut Point Peninsula to determine the sedimentary sequence under the peninsula to define Cenozoic glacial and volcanic history of the region [K101_1992_1993_NZ_1]
A seismic reflection survey and wide angle reflection experiment was carried out along an 11km profile, starting approximately 8 km east of Hut Point Peninsula and heading west to delineate the sedimentary ...


76. Seismic refraction and reflection measurements of the east-west Antarctic plate boundary near the Lowery Glacier and onto the Ross Ice Shelf, south Victoria Land [K101_1990_1991_NZ_1]
In the 1990-1991 season, a seismic refraction and reflection experiment was completed along a 142 km long line across the transition zone between Ross Embayment and the Transantarctic Mountains, just ...


77. Seismic refraction surveys in the McMurdo Sound region [K042_1964_1965_NZ_5]
The suitability of first arrival seismic refraction apparatus for surface structure studies was investigated at sites in the Wright, Taylor and Miers Vallyes and on Brown Peninsula. Results show that ...


78. Seismic, gravity, radar and magnetic measurements across the East Antarctic ice sheet from the Transantarctic Mountains to the Wilkes sub-glacial basin [K101_1993_1994_NZ_1]
A geophysical traverse, designed to image the sedimentary layer under the 3 km thick East Antarctic ice sheet, was completed across part of East Antarctic ice cap west of McMurdo Sound. The programme ...


79. Seismic, infrasonic and magnetic induction data from Mt Erebus: 1980-1986, The International Mt Erebus Seismci Survey (IMESS) [K044_1980_1986_NZ_1]
The International Mt Erebus Seismic Survey (IMESS) was conducted on Mt Erebus to monitor and assess the seismic activity of the volcano year round. Seismic, infrasonic and magnetic induction data ...


80. Seismograph data from the David Glacier region near Terra Nova Bay to determine the origins of low magnitude seismicity in the area: brittle ice failure, basal shearing beneath the glacier, or tectonic events? [K101_2003_2004_NZ_1]
Temporary seismograph stations placed in the Transantarctic Mountains have recorded regular, low magnitude seismicity. The origin of the quakes could not be uniquely discriminated among brittle ice ...


81. Simultaneous measurements of ocean current, temperature and salinity measurements to determine the oceanography of McMurdo Sound [K131_2004_2007_NZ_1]
McMurdo Sound forms a natural and accessible laboratory for understanding the fundamental processes that underpin ice-ocean interactions. How changes in the sea ice sheet affect the physical oceanography ...


82. Snow pit sampling and ice cores (from Dome C) used to measured the cosmogenic radionucleide 32Si for depositional variation and determination of half life for radiometric dating methods [K110_2003_2004_NZ_1]
Ice core records are very useful for determining past climate because they store a wide variety of proxies for climate forcing and climate response. Accurate dating of ice cores is crucial to making ...


83. Soil and groundwater description, characterisation and sampling at various sites at Cape Hallett [K123_2003_2005_NZ_1]
The soil and groundwater at Seabee Hook, Cape Hallet was described and characterised. Soil Investigation: Soil pits were dug east of Willett Cove on low mounds on disturbed and undisturbed sites, ...


84. Soil and salt samples and geological observations from high altitude sites in the Upper Taylor Valley to determine the history of the Antarctic environment through the composition of salts in soils [K105_1997_1998_NZ_1]
To understand the processes of Antarctic soils as they affect the composition and distributions of salts and ice in and below the soils, the salts in very old soils and paleosols were investigated. ...


85. Soil chemistry and soil CO2 concentration and isotopic composition from sites in Taylor Valley and the Lake Wellman area [K072_2008_2010_NZ_1]
This study aimed to understand the origin and dynamics of pedogenic carbonate in Antarctic soils, with a long-term view to understanding the formation of carbonate and the storage and turnover of ...


86. Soil pit description and analysis (thin sections, cation and anion chemistry of soluble salts) from Beacon, Arena and Pearce Valley to determine the origin of ground ice at high elevations in the Dry Valleys [K047_2001_2002_NZ_1]
The origin of ground ice at high elevations (>1000m) throughout the Dry Valleys of Antarctica was investigated as the origin is unclear because there is no obvious comtemporary source of water. A ...


87. Soil profile descriptions, Lake Wellman region, Antarctica [K123_2007_2008_NZ]
We sampled a chronosequence of soils on moraines in the Darwin Mountains ranging from early Holocene (10 ky) to mid Quaternary (ca 900 ky) in age to test if the structure and diversity of microbial ...


88. Soil salt concentrations as indicators of prior lake levels: Lakes Bonney and Vanda [K009_1973_1974_NZ_3]   PARENT DIF
In the belief that geochemical techniques may assist to unravel the complexities of the Antarctic glacial moraine, a project was undertaken to investigate the concentrations of salts in the soils ...


89. Soil samples and temperature data from Tramway Ridge, Mt Erebus to determine the genetic capabilities and structure of microbial communities [K023_2008_2009_NZ_1]
The study of high temperature extreme environments continues to challenge our understanding of the upper tolerances of microbial life and how life may have originated on earth and possibly other planets. ...


90. Soil samples from Mout Fleming, Allen Hills and the McKelvey Valley to determine the fungal terrestrial biodiversity using cultures and molecular DNA techniques [K021_1998_2008_NZ_9]
Soil samples were taken from Mount Fleming (00-01), Allen Hills (03-04) and the McKelvey Valley (07-08) to ascertain terrestrial biodiversity at the sites, as determined by molecular DNA techniques ...


91. Soil samples from Mout Fleming, Allen Hills and the McKelvey Valley to determine the fungal terrestrial biodiversity using cultures and molecular DNA techniques - K021_1998_2011_NZ_9 [K021_1998_2011_NZ_9]
Soil samples were taken from Mount Fleming (00-01), Allen Hills (03-04) and the McKelvey Valley (07-08) to ascertain terrestrial biodiversity at the sites, as determined by molecular DNA techniques ...


92. Soil samples from two sites near Scott Base with LiCl added to determine how far water soluble materials spilt on the soil surface will travel [K105_1992_1994_NZ_2]
A leaching trial was set up at Scott Base to determine how rapidly and how far water-soluble materials spilt on the soil surface will move. Lithium chloride (LiCl) was added to two trial sites near ...


93. Soil samples used for ATP analysis of microbial biomass and PCR based methods to determine species diversity and detecting human contamination by testing for human enteric micro-organisms [K023_1999_2000_NZ_1]
Soil samples were collected during January 1999 and 2000 from the ornithogenic soils of the Adelie penguin colony at Cape Bird, the volcanic soils at Cape Evans, the gravels and ornithogenic soils ...


94. Soil studies of the Ross Sea Region 1959-2009 [K150_1959_2009_NZ_1]
Antarctic soils have been investigated in the Ross Sea Region for 50 years. The cumulative studies have resulted in a large literature base of knowledge on various subjects on the soils from various ...


95. Soil, relic ice, permafrost, Hart Ash and granite samples from the Lower Victoria Valley, Beacon Valley, near the Meserve Glacier in Wright Valley, and Kennar Valley to determine the deposition of this ice [K047_2004_2006_NZ_1]
Ancient glacial ice that has stagnated and lies buried underneath rock debris has been found in the Beacon Valley and more recently in several other valleys. This ice poses the possibility of obtaining ...


96. Soil, surface rocks and stone samples from the Beacon Valley area for microtexture analysis of quartz grains [K105_1997_1998_NZ_2]
Samples from pits, surface rocks, stones and from outcrops were collected for examination and analysis to determine the processes which quartz grains from the Beacon sandstone have been through before ...


97. Soil, wood, hay and feed samples collected from Scotts Hut at Cape Evans to determine the presence/absence of Bacillus sp [K021_1998_2008_NZ_5]
Three soil samples were taken from Hut Point, 73 from Cape Evans and 28 from Cape Royds to determine the presence/absence of Bacillus sp. At Cape Evans, transects were made and soil cores were taken ...


98. South Polar Skua Population Census [K121_2011_2012_NZ_1]
Our primary hypothesis is that South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki) population abundance broadly tracks summer food availability in the southern McMurdo Sound region. Skuas and Adélie penguins ...


99. Spatial variation measurements of the hydrology and glaciology of the Dry Valleys [K161_1969_1991_NZ_5]   CHILD DIFs   PARENT DIF
The long term hydrology/glaciology study carried out in the McMurdo Dry Valleys was conducted to gain information on the hydrological behaviour of the Dry Valleys rivers and lakes, particularly for ...


100. Statigraphy of the Heimdall and Conrow Glacier area [K026_1976_1977_NZ_2]
The stratigraphy of the Heimdall and Conrow Glacier area was determined to compliment earlier work carried out by Victoria University Antarctic Expeditions to define the stratigraphy of the area between ...


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