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51. Sequencing of the metallothionein gene using the RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) method in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki to determine the exposure of Antarctic fish to heavy metals [K014_1997_1999_NZ_1]
The development and application of a new molecular approach for quantifying the exposure of Antarctic fish to heavy metals was tested. The approach uses quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase ...


52. Size range and sex ratio of the amphipod Hyperiella dilatata taken by fish, caught in plankton nets and those associated with jellyfish [K012_1987_1988_NZ_3]
Aspects of the biology of the amphipod Hyperiella dilatata was investigated including comparisons of size range and sex ratio of individuals taken by the fish, and those caught in plankton nets, with ...


53. Soil and salt samples and geological observations from high altitude sites in the Upper Taylor Valley to determine the history of the Antarctic environment through the composition of salts in soils [K105_1997_1998_NZ_1]
To understand the processes of Antarctic soils as they affect the composition and distributions of salts and ice in and below the soils, the salts in very old soils and paleosols were investigated. ...


54. Soil chemistry and soil CO2 concentration and isotopic composition from sites in Taylor Valley and the Lake Wellman area [K072_2008_2010_NZ_1]
This study aimed to understand the origin and dynamics of pedogenic carbonate in Antarctic soils, with a long-term view to understanding the formation of carbonate and the storage and turnover of ...


55. Soil salt concentrations as indicators of prior lake levels: Lakes Bonney and Vanda [K009_1973_1974_NZ_3]   PARENT DIF
In the belief that geochemical techniques may assist to unravel the complexities of the Antarctic glacial moraine, a project was undertaken to investigate the concentrations of salts in the soils ...


56. Soil samples and temperature data from Tramway Ridge, Mt Erebus to determine the genetic capabilities and structure of microbial communities [K023_2008_2009_NZ_1]
The study of high temperature extreme environments continues to challenge our understanding of the upper tolerances of microbial life and how life may have originated on earth and possibly other planets. ...


57. Soil samples from two sites near Scott Base with LiCl added to determine how far water soluble materials spilt on the soil surface will travel [K105_1992_1994_NZ_2]
A leaching trial was set up at Scott Base to determine how rapidly and how far water-soluble materials spilt on the soil surface will move. Lithium chloride (LiCl) was added to two trial sites near ...


58. Soil samples used for ATP analysis of microbial biomass and PCR based methods to determine species diversity and detecting human contamination by testing for human enteric micro-organisms [K023_1999_2000_NZ_1]
Soil samples were collected during January 1999 and 2000 from the ornithogenic soils of the Adelie penguin colony at Cape Bird, the volcanic soils at Cape Evans, the gravels and ornithogenic soils ...


59. Soil, nematode, and springtail sample collection from Granite Harbour [K066_2009_2010_NZ_1]
The aim of this study was to determine aspects of the environmental physiology and phylogeography of Antarctic terrestrial invertebrates. Soil samples were collected from Granite Harbour for geochemical ...


60. Soil, surface rocks and stone samples from the Beacon Valley area for microtexture analysis of quartz grains [K105_1997_1998_NZ_2]
Samples from pits, surface rocks, stones and from outcrops were collected for examination and analysis to determine the processes which quartz grains from the Beacon sandstone have been through before ...


61. Stratigraphic section description and processing of phytoliths and pollen (microfossils) samples from Wellar Coal Measures, the Feather Sandstone and Lashley Formation from Allan Hills [K042_2001_2002_NZ_1]
Stratigraphic sections from the Weller Coal Measures, the Feather Sandstone, and the Lashley Formation were described from the Allan Hills. 115 samples were taken from these rocks and processes for ...


62. Surface snow samples containing aeolian dust recovered from 40 sites on first and multi-year McMurdo sea ice using ultra clean methodology in November 2009 [K049_2009_2010_NZ_1]
55 surface snow samples containing aeolian dust were collected from the McMurdo sea ice using ultra clean methodology along two East-West transects and one North-South transect. Duplicate samples ...


63. Survey of invertebrates, lichen, mosses and soil microbiology in the Shackleton, Scott and Beardmore Glacier regions. [K020_2009_2010_NZ_1]
A survey of biodiversity in the Central and Southern Transantarctic mountains including: Invertebrates (Collembola, Acari, Nematoda, Tardigrada, Rotifera); Lichens, Mosses, and Soil microbiology. ...


64. Surveys and detailed investigations of Holocene raised beaches on the Victoria Land coast from Spike Cape to Depot Island [K052_1984_1985_NZ_2]
The Holocene raised beaches along the Victoria Land coast from Spike Cape north to Depot Island were investigated. Raised beach ridge suites contain records of relative sea level change that can ...


65. Temperature selection, locomotion and feeding behaviour of Antarctic fish [K012_1983_1984_NZ_3]
To test the ability of Antarctic fishes to perceive and react to temperature differences, a temperature gradient from -1.8°C to +5.4°C was set up in a trough and fish were monitored to see which part ...


66. The Heimdall Erosion surface [K051_2006_2007_NZ_1]
The Heimdall Erosion surface between Mt Jason, Mt Hercules, Mt Electra, Balham Valley, Vashka Lake and Sponsors Peak was investigated with the aim to evaluate the tectonic setting of early Beacon ...


67. The amount of nitrogen in the biotic and abiotic systems at Cape Bird measured from evaporated water samples and wind blown inputs [K052_1982_1983_NZ_2]
The amount of nitrogen in the biotic (flora and fauna) and abiotic (soils, ice and snow) systems at Cape Bird was determined by taking water from melt streams, snow or ice, acidifying and evaporating ...


68. The biomass, productivity and biodiversity of algae in the Cape Hallett region [K043_2003_2005_NZ_1]
The distribution and biodiversity of algae was assessed to enable possible future predictions of the effects of global warming. Sites (5 in the first season, 4 in the second) were established around ...


69. The biomass, productivity, physiology and grazing pressures of phytoplankton during the polar winter in the Ross Sea region [K043_2007_2008_NZ_1]
What happens to primary production during the long polar night was investigated in the Ross Sea region. Phytoplankton samples were obtained from the water column at Cape Armitage and Cape Evans. Phytoplankton ...


70. The characteristics of an isolated in situ Pagothenia borchgrevinki heart: heart rate and pressure, the effects of drugs, innervation of the heart and biochemical work of the blood and muscle tissue [K057_1996_1997_NZ_3]
The characteristics of an isolated in situ fish heart was investigated. A Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish was killed and its heart was exposed and isolated from its blood supply, but left in place ...


71. The collection of fossils, qualitative microbial studies and nitrogen fixation rates of the soils from several sites in the Ross Sea region [K052_1980_1981_NZ_1]
Preliminary qualitative microbiological studies were conducted at several sites in the Ross Sea Region including Cape Bird, Taylor Valley, Wright Valley and Shapeless Mountain and Mistake Peak on ...


72. The control of blood flow and the effects of drugs on the contractile forces exerted by blood vessels in the gills of Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1995_1996_NZ_1]
The control of blood flow through the gill of a notothenioid fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki, was examined by isolating a gill arch and perfusing it with saline. The effects of drugs on the afferent ...


73. The control of blood flow through the gills and the effects of a number of vasoactive drugs on blood flow and oxygen uptake in two Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii [K057_1996_1997_NZ_1]
The extracorporeal loop technique was used to measure oxygen levels of the blood, pre and post-branchial blood pressure, heart rate, blood flow and from these measurements stroke volume of the heart ...


74. The corrosion of architectural aluminum alloy under Antarctic conditions [K034_1970_1984_NZ_1]
In 1968, a ten year programme to assess the behaviour of anodised aluminium in the atmosphere was started. This consisted of exposing a range of test coupons at 5 sites in and around Christchurch ...


75. The development of anaerobic enrichment cultures and measurements of the rates of methanogenesis, the turnover of 14C acetate and the degradation of substrates from sediment samples from Bratina Island [K141_1992_1994_NZ_1]
Life in ponds and tidal lagoons of the McMurdo Ice Shelf is dominated by benthic cyanobacterial mats. Anaerobic conditions occur beneath these productive mats. A study was conducted to investigate ...


76. The distribution and petrogenetic realationship of the various granitoids, gneisses, schists and dykes in the St Johns Range [K042_1985_1986_NZ_2]
The distribution of the various granitoids, gneisses, schists and dykes in the St Johns Range was mapped and a representative suite of samples suitable for major and trace element analysis was collected ...


77. The distribution of zooplankton in McMurdo Sound - interannual variation, spatial variation and depth stratification [K014_1990_1991_NZ_1]
Building on previous studies of zooplankton distribution and abundance, a programme was planned to i) augment the interannual variability off Scott Base, ii) assess variability in surface waters on ...


78. The distribution, embryological development and effects of temperature on the eggs and larvae of Pleuragramma antarcticum from Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica [K012_2005_2006_NZ_1]
Little is known of the early development of Pleuragramma antarcticum prior to hatching. Abundant eggs and larvae were collected under the sea ice from Terra Nova Bay in October and November. The distribution, ...


79. The distribution, taxonomy, physiology and feeding habits of pelagic amphipods in Terra Nova Bay [K043_2006_2008_NZ_5]
The distribution, taxonomy, physiology and feeding habits of pelagic amphipods was investigated. Amphipods were collected by plankton tow, baited traps, coring (coring through sea ice) or hand collections ...


80. The dynamics of red blood cell release and uptake by the spleen and the control of red blood cell swelling from the effects of stress in two species of Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii [K057_1996_1997_NZ_2]
In vitro experimentation determined that red cell swelling is a consequence of activation of a Na+/H+ antiporter located on the red cell membrane. The antiporter is controlled by a β-adrenoceptor ...


81. The effect of temperature and hypoxia on the metabolic rate and specific dynamic action of feeding of the giant nemertean worm Paraborlasia corrugatus [K057_2002_2003_NZ_1]
The giant nemertean worm Paraborlasia corrugatus is an important member of the benthic community where it is both an opportunistic scavenger and an active predator. Previous work has shown the animal ...


82. The effect of temperature and sulphate availability on the terminal electron flow (to sulphide or methane) in anaerobic Antarctic sediments [K081_2001_2002_NZ_1]
Sediment was collected from a range of ponds from the McMurdo Ice Shelf and returned to New Zealand for laboratory studies. Samples were incubated in long term incubators to determine the relative ...


83. The effects of UVB on growth and productivity and photoadaptations of bottom ice algae at Cape Evans, McMurdo Sound [K136_1999_2002_NZ_1]
Sea ice hosts a large community of algae which is released into the food chain when the ice melts. The sea ice algae grow rapidly in the Antarctic spring at a time that coincides with the ozone hole ...


84. The effects of human impacts on Antarctic sponge species in the Ross Sea [K059_2001_2003_NZ]
The effects of human impacts on the microbial and chemical ecology of Antarctic sponge species was investigated. Sponges dominate many of the shallow marine Antarctic habitats and due to the large ...


85. The effects of increased PAR and UV on the xanthophyl cycle of Antarctic ice algae [K068_2005_2006_NZ_1]
The xanthophyll cycle is a photo-protection mechanism in phytoplankton which protects the photosynthestic machinery from damage by high light intensities. Sea ice algae in Antarctica live on the ...


86. The effects of increased temperature on the physiological variable (heart rate, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, blood pressure, etc) of 2 Antarctic fish: Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii [K057_2002_2003_NZ_2]
The effects of increased temperature on physiological variables in two Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki (pelagic) and Trematomus bernacchii (sedentary) was investigated using a new technique ...


87. The effects of pH and drugs on miniature end plate current decay in extraocular muscles of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K012_1982_1983_NZ_2]
Previous experiments indicated that miniature end plate currents (MEPCs) from extraocular muscles of Antarctic fish decay significantly faster than MEPCs from New Zealand temperate fish. As the Antarctic ...


88. The effects of temperature and pH on collegen denaturation at fish skin contractions in Antarctic fish [K012_1988_1989_NZ_4]
Measurements of fish skin contraction as a function of temperature and pH and the effects of temperature on denaturation of collagen was investigated by incubating strips of skin from several notothenioid ...


89. The effects of temperature on conduction of the nervous impulse and transmission of the impulse from nerve to muscle in two Antarctic fish and an isopod [K012_1977_1978_NZ_1]
The pattern of cold adaptation in the nervous system of Antarctic fish, with particular attention to the effects of temperature changes on conduction of the nervous impulse and on transmission of ...


90. The evolution of microsatellite and mitochondrial genes of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) from DNA samples taken from stratified subfossil penguin bones at penguin colonies [K030_1996_1999_NZ_1]
Evolutionary changes in microsatellite and mitochondrial genes of Adelie penguins was investigated to provide knowledge about the genetic processes and mechanisms that give rise to variation and change ...


91. The functioning of the spleen in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1994_1995_NZ_2]
The spleen of notothenioids releases red blood cells during times of stress to increase oxygen uptake. The more red blood cells in the blood, the more viscous it is and the harder it is to pump around ...


92. The geochemistry of Antarctic snow, Vostok Station [K009_1977_1978_NZ_1]
Thin layers of snow (as thin as a fraction of a millimetre) were taken and analysed for sodium in a flame photometer. When thin layers of snow are analysed for sodium an annual pattern is found with ...


93. The geology of the Northern Britannia Range between the Hatherton and Byrd Glaciers [K009_1978_1979_NZ_1]   PARENT DIF
The geology of the Northern Britannia Range between the Hatherton and Byrd Glaciers was mapped and the landforms, soils and glacial history of the range was investigated. A four man team man-hauled ...


94. The histological development of blood cells and identification of erythropoietin in the red blooded Antarctic notothenioid species [K012_1994_1995_NZ_1]
A joint program with the Italian program investigated erythropoesis (formation of red blood cells) and red cell turn over in the red blooded Antarctic fishes. A range of fish tissues was collected ...


95. The legacy model vs the subsidy model to explain soil organic matter in the McMurdo Dry Valleys [K052_2004_2006_NZ_1]   CHILD DIFs
The Dry Valleys of Victoria Land, Antarctica, contain naturally simple ecosystems operating under extreme climatic conditions. Nutrients are limited and are thought to come from external sources from ...


96. The mean size and mean number of microbial organism for soil samples collected from Heald, Hahn and White Island terrestrial soils and White Island marine sediment [K014_1978_1979_NZ_3]
Samples of soils collected from Heald, Hahn and White Island were ground in a mortar and pestle with 20ml distilled water. Agar films for subsequent counting were prepared from these soil suspensions. ...


97. The modern sedimentation regime at the snout of the Ferrar Glacier, New Harbour [K042_1985_1986_NZ_1]
The modern sedimentation regime at the snout of the Ferrar Glacier was investigated for comparison with the upper sediments cored in the CIROS-2 hole and to determine the modern sedimentation processes ...


98. The muscle histochemistry and characterization of different metabolic types in fin and trunk muscles investigated on Antarctic fish [K057_1983_1984_NZ_1]
The muscle histochemistry and characterization of different metabolic types in fin and trunk muscles was investigated on Antarctic fish. Frozen sections were cut and examined and interactions and ...


99. The neural biology of Antarctic fish: Measurements of the neural activity from fish semicircular canals in response to head movement [K012_1983_1984_NZ_1]
The input and outputs of a well defined reflex pathway (the vestibulo-ocular reflex - VOR) was described in Antarctic fish to assess the mechanisms of neural cold adaptation at low temperatures. The ...


100. The population dynamics and energetics of a species of pelagic Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki - length, weight, stomach content, parasites, fecundity, pattern of feeding, respiration experiments [K014_1979_1980_NZ_3]
The population dynamics and energetics of a species of pelagic Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki was studied. Fish were captured using silver lures with treble hooks and fish traps baited with ...


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